I think I’m winding down on this series, but who knows?
I’d like to mention perineal massage, specifically during pushing stage, done with the intent to help mom not have a vaginal tear.
In the States, this means that the midwife or OB applies downward pressure of some form on the lower edge of the vagina. On the edge of the inside of the vagina downward.
Here, I’ve seen the opposite thing done to protect the perineum. Instead of downward pressure, the midwife (not totally accurate translation) will place her hand/fingers in a “U” and use her fingertips to cup the perineum/lower edge of vagina upwards. Not exactly at moment baby is emerging, but slightly before and around crowning.
This is just yet another interesting detail of difference